From Allen (1995)
Examples:
- A dog entered with every man
- for each man x, there is some dog y and event z, such that z involves y entering with x (i.e. the group of men is distributive; one dog/event per man)
- there is some dog x and some event y, such that for each man z, y involves x entering with z (i.e. the group of men is collective; just one dog/event)
- there is some dog x, such that for each man y, there is some event z such that z involves x entering with y (i.e. the group of men is distributive; just one dog, but one event per man)
- there is some event x, such that for each man y, there is some dog z such that x involves z entering with y (i.e. the group of men is collective; just one event, but one dog per man)
i.e. six possible scope orderings, but only four are distinct - where 'dog' and 'enter' are adjacent, there is no contrast. Therefore, we need a representation format which allows these four fully specified structures but no others. There should also be five underspecified possibilities in the description language:
dog/man/enter
> dog/man enter
> dog man enter [3]
> [1]
> dog/enter man [2]
> man/enter dog
> [1]
> enter man dog [4]
> dog man/enter
> [3]
> [2]
> man dog/enter [1]
> enter dog/man
> [2]
> [4]
Note: this is a well-formed type hierarchy.
-- MarkMcConville - 16 Sep 2008